A new approach to analyzing the type of moisture inside the filter cake of hematite concentrate

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Mining Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Gol-E Gohar Mining and Industrial Company, Sirjan, Iran.


Filters are widely used for dewatering in the mining industry. In general, different parameters affect vacuum filtration, such as solid percentage, vacuum level, particle size distribution, filter cloth, and chemical additives. These parameters can influence filtration properties such as cake moisture, throughput, and filter cloth lifetime. Moisture and throughput usually are used to determine the quality of filtration. In this study, new variables were used to express the filtration and characteristics of filter cake at a microscopic scale. The quality of the filter cake can be precociously analyzed using the void fraction and density of the filter cake. The present study aimed to propose some new variables to properly analyze the filtration process, improve the filtration rate, and decrease the cake moisture of Gol-E Gohar iron ore concentrate. In this regard, a series of filtration experiments were implemented using laboratory-scale bottom top-feed vacuum filters. The results showed that an increase in the solid percentage decreased the void fraction from 0.45 to 0.40 and increased cake density from 0.30 to 0.33 gr.cm-3, respectively. Increasing the particle size increased the void fraction from 0.415 to 0.43. Furthermore, the type of structural or capillary moisture of the filter cake could be determined using a void fraction.


Main Subjects

[1]    B. A. Wills, Wills’ Mineral Processing Technology: An Introduction to the Practical Aspects of Ore Treatment and Mineral Recovery. Butterworth-Heinemann, 2011.
[2]    H. Mamghaderi, S. Aghababaei, M. Gharabaghi, M. Noaparast, B. Albijanic, and A. Rezaei, “Investigation on the effects of chemical pretreatment on the iron ore tailing dewatering,” Colloids Surf. Physicochem. Eng. Asp., vol. 625, p. 126855, Sep. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.colsurfa.2021.126855.
[3]    N. P. Cheremisinoff, “2 - Filter Media and Use of Filter Aids,” in Liquid Filtration (Second Edition), N. P. Cheremisinoff, Ed. Woburn: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1998, pp. 19–58. Accessed: Dec. 24, 2015. [Online]. Available: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780750670470500039
[4]    R. Salmimies et al., “The scaling and regeneration of the ceramic filter medium used in the dewatering of a magnetite concentrate,” Int. J. Miner. Process., vol. 119, pp. 21–26, Mar. 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.minpro.2012.12.006.
[5]    E. S. Tarleton and R. J. Wakeman, “1 - Solid/liquid separation equipment,” in Solid/Liquid Separation, E. S. TarletonR. J. Wakeman, Ed. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2007, pp. 1–77. Accessed: Dec. 23, 2015. [Online]. Available: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781856174213500018
[6]    T. Sparks, Solid-Liquid Filtration: A user’s guide to minimizing cost & environmental impact, maximizing quality & productivity. Elsevier, 2011.
[7]    J. L. Watson and Z. Li, “Application of magnetic forces to disk vacuum filtration in the laboratory and plant,” Miner. Eng., vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1253–1262, Oct. 1999, doi: 10.1016/S0892-6875(99)00110-7.
[8]    “Advances in dewatering and drying in mineral processing: Drying Technology: Vol 39, No 11.” https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/07373937.2021.1907754 (accessed Oct. 11, 2021).
[9]    N. Ediz, İ. Bentli, and İ. Tatar, “Improvement in filtration characteristics of diatomite by calcination,” Int. J. Miner. Process., vol. 94, no. 3–4, pp. 129–134, Apr. 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.minpro.2010.02.004.
[10]  Z. Ren, H. Gao, H. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Effects of fluxes on the structure and filtration properties of diatomite filter aids,” Int. J. Miner. Process., vol. 130, pp. 28–33, Jul. 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.minpro.2014.05.011.
[11]   F. Zheng et al., “R31 filter aid enhances filtration of fine hematite concentrate particles,” Powder Technol., vol. 378, pp. 255–262, Jan. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.powtec.2020.09.043.
[12]  A. G. Andrade and M. Athayde, “Iron ore filtration process improvement through pH modification,” SN Appl. Sci., vol. 3, no. 4, p. 433, Mar. 2021, doi: 10.1007/s42452-021-04446-2.
[13] G Gorres and   B palmer, “Water recovery- a challenge for modern dewatering technology,” paste, 2013.
[14]  M. Dash, R. K. Dwari, S. K. Biswal, P. Chattopadhyay, and B. K. Mishra, “Studies on the effect of flocculant adsorption on the dewatering of iron ore tailings,” Chem. Eng. J., vol. 173, no. 2, pp. 318–325, Sep. 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.cej.2011.07.034.
[15]  A. Gupta and D. S. Yan, Mineral Processing Design and Operation: An Introduction. Elsevier, 2006.
[16]  T. Friedmann, C. Lustenberger, and E. J. Windhab, “Filtration experiments with compressible filter cakes in centrifugal fields with superimposed static pressure,” Int. J. Miner. Process., vol. 73, no. 2–4, pp. 261–267, Feb. 2004, doi: 10.1016/S0301-7516(03)00078-4.
[17]  F. Civan, “Chapter 12 - Cake Filtration: Mechanism, Parameters, and Modeling*,” in Reservoir Formation Damage (Third Edition), F. Civan, Ed. Boston: Gulf Professional Publishing, 2016, pp. 295–341. Accessed: Dec. 24, 2015. [Online]. Available: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128018989000126
[18]  E. S. Tarleton and R. J. Wakeman, “2 - Filter media,” in Solid/Liquid Separation, E. S. TarletonR. J. Wakeman, Ed. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2007, pp. 78–125. Accessed: Dec. 23, 2015. [Online]. Available: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978185617421350002X
[19]  H Abedini, A Dehghani, R Hejazi, and M Saghaeian, “improving the performance of industrial horizontal vacuum belt filters by adding chemical reagents,” presented at the international mineral processing congress, Santiago. chile, 2014.
[20] H. Kalman and D. Portnikov, “Analyzing bulk density and void fraction: B. Effect of moisture content and compression pressure,” Powder Technol., vol. 381, pp. 285–297, Mar. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.powtec.2020.12.019.
 [21] H. Kalman and D. Portnikov, “Analyzing bulk density and void fraction: A. the effect of Archimedes number,” Powder Technol., vol. 381, pp. 477–487, Mar. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.powtec.2020.12.014.
[22] Tarleton, S. and Wakeman, R., 2011. Solid/liquid separation: scale-up of industrial equipment. Elsevier.