Del Carpio, E., Hernández, L., Ciangherotti, C., Coa, V. V., Jiménez, L., Lubes, V., & Lubes, G. (2018). Vanadium: History, chemistry, interactions with α-amino acids and potential therapeutic applications. Coordination chemistry reviews, 372, 117-140.
 Moskalyk, R. R., & Alfantazi, A. M. (2003). Processing of vanadium: a review. Minerals engineering, 16(9), 793-805.
 Imtiaz, M., Rizwan, M. S., Xiong, S., Li, H., Ashraf, M., Shahzad, S. M.,. & Tu, S. (2015). Vanadium, recent advancements and research prospects: a review. Environment International, 80, 79-88.
 Gilligan, R., & Nikoloski, A. N. (2020). The extraction of vanadium from titanomagnetites and other sources. Minerals Engineering, 146, 106106.
 Ye, G. (2006). Recovery of Vanadium from LD slag, A state of the art report, Part 1 - Facts and metallurgy of Vanadium. Development, 816.
 Yang, B., He, J., Zhang, G., & Guo, J. (2021). Vanadium and its compounds. In Vanadium: Extraction, Manufacturing and Applications (pp. 9–32). Elsevier.
 Habashi, F. (1977). Handbook of Extractive Metallurgy—Volume: III.
 Pessoa, J. C., Etcheverry, S., & Gambino, D. (2015). Vanadium compounds in medicine. Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 301, 24-48.
 Okudan, M. D., Akcil, A., Tuncuk, A., & Deveci, H. (2015). Effect of parameters on vanadium recovery from by-products of the Bayer process. Hydrometallurgy, 152, 76-83.
 Gaudet, P. (2017, October 3). U3O8 Corp. Highlights Planned Production Profile for Vanadium from the Laguna Salada Deposit Based on a PEA. U3O8 Corp. Retrieved July 15, 2021, from http://www.u3o8corp.com/u3o8-corp-highlights-planned-production-profile-for-vanadium-from-the-laguna-salada-deposit-based-on-a-pea/
 Ferro-Alloy Resources Group. (2020, July 30). vanadium market overview. Retrieved October 20, 2020, from http://www.ferro-alloy.com/en/vanadium/vanadium-market-overview/
 Zhang, Y. M., Bao, S. X., Liu, T., Chen, T. J., & Huang, J. (2011). The technology of extracting vanadium from stone coal in China: History, current status and future prospects. Hydrometallurgy, 109(1-2), 116-124.
 About Vanadium – Bushveld Minerals. (n.d.). Retrieved July 22, 2021, from https://www.bushveldminerals.com/about-vanadium
 Li, X., Wei, C., Deng, Z., Li, M., Li, C., & Fan, G. (2011). Selective solvent extraction of vanadium over iron from a stone coal/black shale acid leach solution by D2EHPA/TBP. Hydrometallurgy, 105(3-4), 359-363.
 Gao, F., Olayiwola, A. U., Liu, B., Wang, S., Du, H., Li, J., ... & Zhang, Y. (2021). Review of Vanadium Production Part I: Primary Resources. Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy Review, 1-23.
 Li, H. Y., Wang, C. J., Yuan, Y. H., Guo, Y., Diao, J., & Xie, B. (2020). Magnesiation roasting-acid leaching: A zero-discharge method for vanadium extraction from vanadium slag. Journal of Cleaner Production, 260, 121091.
 Xiao, Y., Jalkanen, H., Yang, Y., Mambote, C. R., & Boom, R. (2010). Ferrovanadium production from petroleum fly ash and BOF flue dust. Minerals Engineering, 23(14), 1155-1157.
 Gupta, C. K., & Krishnamurthy, N. (1992). Sources processing. In Extractive Metallurgy of vanadium (pp. 203–381). Elsevier.
 Le, M. N., & Lee, M. S. (2021). A review on hydrometallurgical processes for the recovery of valuable metals from spent catalysts and life cycle analysis perspective. Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy Review, 42(5), 335-354.
 Zhu, X., Li, W., Tang, S., Zeng, M., Bai, P., & Chen, L. (2017). Selective recovery of vanadium and scandium by ion exchange with D201 and solvent extraction using P507 from hydrochloric acid leaching solution of red mud. Chemosphere, 175, 365-372.
 Crabtree, E. H., & Smith, F. L. (1961). Mining and western world sources of vanadium. Journal of the Less Common Metals, 3(6), 433-436.
 Zhang, G., Luo, D., Deng, C., Lv, L., Liang, B., & Li, C. (2018). Simultaneous extraction of vanadium and titanium from vanadium slag using ammonium sulfate roasting-leaching process. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 742, 504-511.
 Mahdilu, A., Gaffari, S., Irannejad, M. (2008). Extraction of Vanadium from Ghara Aghaj titanomagnetite by roasting-leaching Method. Scientific-Research Journal of Mining Engineering. 3(6), 9-17.
 Taylor, P. R., Shuey, S. A., Vidal, E. E., & Gomez, J. C. (2006). Extractive metallurgy of vanadium-containing titaniferous magnetite ores: a review. Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration, 23(2), 80-86.
 Zhou, X., Li, C., Li, J., Liu, H., & Wu, S. (2009). Leaching of vanadium from carbonaceous shale. Hydrometallurgy, 99(1-2), 97-99.
 Peng, H. (2019). A literature review on leaching and recovery of vanadium. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 7(5), 103313.
 Zhang, G., Zhang, Y., Bao, S., Jian, X., & Li, R. (2019). Selective vanadium extraction from vanadium bearing ferro-phosphorus via roasting and pressure hydrogen reduction. Separation and Purification Technology, 220, 293-299.
 Rollmann, L. D., & Walsh, D. E. (1980). U.S. Patent No. 4,203,830. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
 Eidem, P. K. (1988). Reducing the metals content of petroleum feedstocks (No. US 4752382).
 Salehzadeh, H., Mousavi, M., HATAMI, P. S., & Kermanshahi, K. (2007). Microbial demetallization of crude oil using Aspergillus sp.: vanadium oxide octaethyl porphyrin (VOOEP) as a model of metallic petroporphyrins.
 Barin, R., Salehizadeh, H. (2012). Demetallization of crude oil with emphasis on biotechnology strategies. Iranian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 22-31.
 Vitolo, S., Seggiani, M., Filippi, S., & Brocchini, C. (2000). Recovery of vanadium from heavy oil and Orimulsion fly ashes. Hydrometallurgy, 57(2), 141-149.
 Liu, Z., & Li, H. (2015). Metallurgical process for valuable elements recovery from red mud—A review. Hydrometallurgy, 155, 29-43.
 Mukherjee, T. K., Chakraborty, S. P., Bidaye, A. C., & Gupta, C. K. (1990). Recovery of pure vanadium oxide from bayer sludge. Minerals Engineering, 3(3-4), 345-353.
 Liu, Y., & Naidu, R. (2014). Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): Recovery of metals. Waste management, 34(12), 2662-2673.
 Erust, C., Akcil, A., Bedelova, Z., Anarbekov, K., Baikonurova, A., & Tuncuk, A. (2016). Recovery of vanadium from spent catalysts of sulfuric acid plant by using inorganic and organic acids: laboratory and semi-pilot tests. Waste Management, 49, 455-461.
 Kim, H. I., Lee, K. W., Mishra, D., Yi, K. M., Hong, J. H., Jun, M. K., & Park, H. K. (2014). Separation and recovery of vanadium from leached solution of spent residuehydrodesulfurization (RHDS) catalyst using solvent extraction. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 20(6), 4457-4462.
 Khorfan, S., Wahoud, A., & Reda, Y. (2001). Recovery of vanadium pentoxide from spent catalyst used in the manufacture of sulphuric acid. Periodica Polytechnica Chemical Engineering, 45(2), 131-137.
 Mulak, W., Szymczycha, A., Lesniewicz, A., & Zyrnicki, W. (2006). Preliminary results of metals leaching from a spent hydrodesulphurization (HDS) catalyst. Physicochemical Problems of Mineral Processing, 40, 69-76.
 Beolchini, F., Fonti, V., Ferella, F., & Vegliò, F. (2010). Metal recovery from spent refinery catalysts by means of biotechnological strategies. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 178(1-3), 529-534.
 Mishra, D., Kim, D. J., Ralph, D. E., Ahn, J. G., & Rhee, Y. H. (2007). Bioleaching of vanadium rich spent refinery catalysts using sulfur oxidizing lithotrophs. Hydrometallurgy, 1(88), 202-209.
 Akcil, A., Vegliò, F., Ferella, F., Okudan, M. D., & Tuncuk, A. (2015). A review of metal recovery from spent petroleum catalysts and ash. Waste Management, 45, 420-433.
 Emami, A.H. (2002). Extraction of vanadium from slag of Isfahan Zobahan steel converter, MSc thesis.
 Aarabi-Karasgani, M., Rashchi, F., Mostoufi, N., & Vahidi, E. (2010). Leaching of vanadium from LD converter slag using sulfuric acid. Hydrometallurgy, 102(1-4), 14-21.
 Mirazimi, S. M. J., Rashchi, F., & Saba, M. (2013). Vanadium removal from roasted LD converter slag: Optimization of parameters by response surface methodology (RSM). Separation and Purification Technology, 116, 175-183.
 Hedayati, S. (2017). Purification of vanadium leaching solution from steel converter slag
by solvent extraction method. MSc thesis.
 Abbasi, M. H., & Safarnoorallah, M. (1998). Extraction of Vanadium Oxide from Boiler Fuel Ash. Computational Methods in Engineering, 17(1), 165-175.
 Nazari, E. (2014). Recovery of vanadium and nickle from the fuel ash of power plants. MSc thesis.
 Bafegi, M., AbuTalebi, M. R., Emami, A. H. (2005). recovery of vanadium from steel converter overhead by salt leaching method. Journal of the Faculty of Engineering, 813-820.
 Amadeh, A. A., Paydar. M. H., Attayi, A., Emami, M., Vegar, R. (2000). Improvement of Kahnooj Titanium Mine Concentrate by Slag Method, Journal of the Faculty of Engineering, 43-35.
 Tabatabayi, A., Karimi, G. (2004). Recovery and Extraction of Vanadium from Choghart Iron Ore, Iran Mining Engineering Conference, 19-1.
 Fallah, Z., Tagizadeh, M., Godosinejad, D. (2016). Extraction of vanadium from Saghand ores in Yazd by salt roasting- acid leaching method. Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 73-81.
 Hosseinzadeh, M., Alizadeh, M., & Raouf Hosseini, S. M. (2017). Mineralogical and physical beneficiation studies for iron extraction from Bardaskan titanomagnetite placer deposit. Journal of Mining and Environment, 8(2), 191-201.
 Alizadeh, M. (2015). Design of titanium magnetite placer sand processing process for simultaneous extraction of vanadium, titanium and iron elements. Quarterly Journal of Advanced Materials and Technologies, 36-27.
 Yang, B., He, J., Zhang, G., & Guo, J. (2021). Extraction of vanadium from titanoferrous magnetite: mineral processing and enrichment methods. In Vanadium: Extraction, Manufacturing and Applications (pp. 59–88). Elsevier.
 Wang, M., Huang, S., Chen, B., & Wang, X. (2020). A review of processing technologies for vanadium extraction from stone coal. Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, 129(3-4), 290-298.
 Nkosi, S., Dire, P., Nyambeni, N., & Goso, X. C. (2017). A comparative study of vanadium recovery from titaniferous magnetite using salt, sulphate, and soda ash roast-leach processes. In 3rd Young Professionals Conference (pp. 191-200).
 Wang, Z. H., Zheng, S. L., Wang, S. N., Biao, L. I. U., Wang, D. W., Hao, D. U., & Zhang, Y. (2014). Research and prospect on extraction of vanadium from vanadium slag by liquid oxidation technologies. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 24(5), 1273-1288.
 Chen, D., Zhao, L., Liu, Y., Qi, T., Wang, J., & Wang, L. (2013). A novel process for recovery of iron, titanium, and vanadium from titanomagnetite concentrates: NaOH molten salt roasting and water leaching processes. Journal of hazardous materials, 244, 588-595.
 Ji, Y., Shen, S., Liu, J., & Xue, Y. (2017). Cleaner and effective process for extracting vanadium from vanadium slag by using an innovative three-phase roasting reaction. Journal of cleaner production, 149, 1068-1078.
 Li, M., Liu, B., Zheng, S., Wang, S., Du, H., Dreisinger, D. B., & Zhang, Y. (2017). A cleaner vanadium extraction method featuring non-salt roasting and ammonium bicarbonate leaching. Journal of cleaner production, 149, 206-217.
 Xiang, J., Huang, Q., Lv, X., & Bai, C. (2018). Extraction of vanadium from converter slag by two-step sulfuric acid leaching process. Journal of Cleaner Production, 170, 1089-1101.
 Li, R., Liu, T., Zhang, Y., Huang, J., & Xu, C. (2018). Efficient extraction of vanadium from vanadium–Titanium magnetite concentrate by potassium salt roasting additives. Minerals, 8(1), 25.
 Wen, J., Jiang, T., Wang, J., Lu, L., & Sun, H. (2020). Cleaner extraction of vanadium from vanadium-chromium slag based on MnO2 roasting and manganese recycle. Journal of Cleaner Production, 261, 121205.
 Navarro, R., Guzman, J., Saucedo, I., Revilla, J., & Guibal, E. (2007). Vanadium recovery from oil fly ash by leaching, precipitation and solvent extraction processes. Waste Management, 27(3), 425-438.
 Ju, Z. J., Wang, C. Y., & Yin, F. (2015). Dissolution kinetics of vanadium from black shale by activated sulfuric acid leaching in atmosphere pressure. International Journal of Mineral Processing, 138, 1-5.
 Jiang, D., Song, N., Liao, S., Lian, Y., Ma, J., & Jia, Q. (2015). Study on the synergistic extraction of vanadium by mixtures of acidic organophosphorus extractants and primary amine N1923. Separation and Purification Technology, 156, 835-840.
 Yang, X., Zhang, Y., Bao, S., & Shen, C. (2016). Separation and recovery of vanadium from a sulfuric-acid leaching solution of stone coal by solvent extraction using trialkylamine. Separation and Purification Technology, 164, 49-55.
 Zhu, Z., Tulpatowicz, K., Pranolo, Y., & Cheng, C. Y. (2015). Solvent extraction of molybdenum and vanadium from sulphate solutions with Cyphos IL 101. Hydrometallurgy, 154, 72-77.
 Zhang, P., Inoue, K., Yoshizuka, K., & Tsuyama, H. (1996). Extraction and selective stripping of molybdenum (VI) and vanadium (IV) from sulfuric acid solution containing aluminum (III), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and iron (III) by LIX 63 in Exxsol D80. Hydrometallurgy, 41(1), 45-53.
 Zhu, X. Z., Huo, G. S., Jie, N. I., & Qiong, S. O. N. G. (2017). Removal of tungsten and vanadium from molybdate solutions using ion exchange resin. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 27(12), 2727-2732.
 Wang, X., Wang, M., Shi, L., Hu, J., & Qiao, P. (2010). Recovery of vanadium during ammonium molybdate production using ion exchange. Hydrometallurgy, 104(2), 317-321.
 Chen, D., Zhao, H., Hu, G., Qi, T., Yu, H., Zhang, G., ... & Wang, W. (2015). An extraction process to recover vanadium from low-grade vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite. Journal of hazardous materials, 294, 35-40.
 Zeng, L., & Cheng, C. Y. (2010). Recovery of molybdenum and vanadium from synthetic sulphuric acid leach solutions of spent hydrodesulphurisation catalysts using solvent extraction. Hydrometallurgy, 101(3-4), 141-147.
 Xie, F., Zhang, T. A., Dreisinger, D., & Doyle, F. (2014). A critical review on solvent extraction of rare earths from aqueous solutions. Minerals Engineering, 56, 10-28.
 Hao, X. C. (2018). Extraction of vanadium from acidic leaching of waste vanadium-catalyst using ion-exchange resin. Hydrometallurgy of China, 37, 281-285.
 Bao, S., Duan, J., & Zhang, Y. (2018). Recovery of V (V) from complex vanadium solution using capacitive deionization (CDI) with resin/carbon composite electrode. Chemosphere, 208, 14-20.
 Zeng, L., Li, Q., & Xiao, L. (2009). Extraction of vanadium from the leach solution of stone coal using ion exchange resin. Hydrometallurgy, 97(3-4), 194-197.
 Pan, B., Liu, B., Wang, S., Wenzel, M., Weigand, J. J., Feng, M., ... & Zhang, Y. (2020). Ammonium vanadate/ammonia precipitation for vanadium production from a high vanadate to sodium ratio solution obtained via membrane electrolysis method. Journal of Cleaner Production, 263, 121357.
 Zhang, J. H., Zhang, W., Zhang, L., & Gu, S. Q. (2014). A critical review of technology for selective recovery of vanadium from leaching solution in V2O5 production. Solvent extraction and ion exchange, 32(3), 221-248.
 Yang, B., He, J., Zhang, G., & Guo, J. (2021). Extraction of vanadium from V-containing titanoferrous magnetite: extraction of V2O5 from vanadium slag. In Vanadium: Extraction, Manufacturing and Applications (pp. 149–199). Elsevier.
 Pan, B., Jin, W., Liu, B., Zheng, S., Wang, S., Du, H., & Zhang, Y. (2017). Cleaner production of vanadium oxides by cation-exchange membrane-assisted electrolysis of sodium vanadate solution. Hydrometallurgy, 169, 440-446.
 Pan, B., Du, H., Wang, S., Wang, H., Liu, B., & Zhang, Y. (2019). Cleaner production of ammonium poly-vanadate by membrane electrolysis of sodium vanadate solution: The effect of membrane materials and electrode arrangements. Journal of Cleaner Production, 239, 118129.
 Yang, B., He, J., Zhang, G., & Guo, J. (2021). Extracting vanadium pentoxide from minerals and composite materials containing vanadium. In Vanadium: Extraction, Manufacturing and Applications (pp. 227–242). Elsevier.
 Janzadeh, A., Ketabchi, A., Sadrnejad, S. A., Baddei, R. (1384). Extraction of vanadium from spent catalysts and vanadium containing ore, as available vanadium containing raw materials in Iran. Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Iran.
 Crabtree, E. H., & Padilla, V. E. (1961). The treatment of vanadium ores for the recovery of vanadium pentoxide. Journal of the Less Common Metals, 3(6), 437-442.
 Zhang, Y. M., Wang, L. N., Chen, D. S., Wang, W. J., Liu, Y. H., Zhao, H. X., & Qi, T. (2018). A method for recovery of iron, titanium, and vanadium from vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite. International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials, 25(2), 131-144.
 Bian, Z., Feng, Y., Li, H., & Wu, H. (2021). Efficient separation of vanadium, titanium, and iron from vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite by pressurized pyrolysis of ammonium chloride-acid leaching-solvent extraction process. Separation and Purification Technology, 255, 117169.
 Yang, B., He, J., Zhang, G., & Guo, J. (2021). Extraction of vanadium from V-bearing titanoferrous magnetite by smelting to produce V-containing iron. In Vanadium: Extraction, Manufacturing and Applications (pp. 89–121). Elsevier.
 Mahdavian, A., Shafyei, A., Keshavarz Alamdari, E., & Haghshenas, D. F. (2006). Recovery of vanadium from Esfahan Steel Company steel slag; optimizing of roasting and leaching parameters. International Journal of Iron & Steel Society of Iran, 3(2), 17-21.
 Nasimifar, A. R, & Mehrabani, J. V. (2021). Comparison of different processes for the production of vanadium pentoxide from vanadium-containing sources. First International Conference on Metallurgical, Mechanical and Mining Engineering.
 Zhang, J., Zhang, W., & Xue, Z. (2019). An environment-friendly process featuring calcified roasting and precipitation purification to prepare vanadium pentoxide from the converter vanadium slag. Metals, 9(1), 21.
 Du, G., Fan, C., Yang, H., & Zhu, Q. (2019). Selective extraction of vanadium from pre-oxidized vanadium slag by carbochlorination in fluidized bed reactor. Journal of Cleaner Production, 237, 117765.
 Jiang, D. D., Zhang, H. L., Xu, H. B., & Zhang, Y. (2017). Chlorination and purification of vanadium pentoxide with anhydrous aluminum chloride. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 709, 505-510.
 Mink, G., Bertóti, I., Battistoni, C., & Székely, T. (1985). Chlorination of V2O5 by CCl4. The proposed reaction mechanism. Reaction Kinetics and Catalysis Letters, 27(1), 39-45.
 Zheng, H. Y., Sun, Y., Lu, J. W., Dong, J. H., Zhang, W. L., & Shen, F. M. (2017). Vanadium extraction from vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite by selective chlorination using chloride wastes (FeClx). Journal of Central South University, 24(2), 311-317.
 Wang, T., Xu, L., Liu, C., & Zhang, Z. (2014). Calcified roasting-acid leaching process of vanadium from low-grade vanadium-containing stone coal. Chinese Journal of Geochemistry, 33(2), 163-167.
 Liu, Y. H., Yang, C., Li, P. Y., & Li, S. Q. (2010). A new process of extracting vanadium from stone coal. International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials, 17(4), 381-388.
 Deng, Z. G., Chang, W. E. I., Gang, F. A. N., Li, M. T., Li, C. X., & Li, X. B. (2010). Extracting vanadium from stone-coal by oxygen pressure acid leaching and solvent extraction. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 20, s118-s122.
 Zeng, L., & Cheng, C. Y. (2009). A literature review of the recovery of molybdenum and vanadium from spent hydrodesulphurisation catalysts: Part II: Separation and purification. Hydrometallurgy, 98(1-2), 10-20.
 El-Nadi, Y. A., Awwad, N. S., & Nayl, A. A. (2009). A comparative study of vanadium extraction by Aliquat-336 from acidic and alkaline media with application to spent catalyst. International Journal of Mineral Processing, 92(3-4), 115-120.
 Li, W., Zhang, Y., Liu, T., Huang, J., & Wang, Y. (2013). Comparison of ion exchange and solvent extraction in recovering vanadium from sulfuric acid leach solutions of stone coal. Hydrometallurgy, 131, 1-7.
 Li, M., Wei, C., Fan, G., Li, C., Deng, Z., & Li, X. (2009). Extraction of vanadium from shale using pressure acid leaching. Hydrometallurgy, 98(3-4), 308-313.
 Yang, B., He, J., Zhang, G., & Guo, J. (2021). Extracting vanadium from shale. In Vanadium: Extraction, Manufacturing and Applications (pp. 201–225). Elsevier.
 Zhang, Y., Zhang, T. A., Dreisinger, D., Lv, C., Lv, G., & Zhang, W. (2019). Recovery of vanadium from calcification roasted-acid leaching tailing by enhanced acid leaching. Journal of hazardous materials, 369, 632-641.
 Zhu, X., Li, W., & Zhang, C. (2020). Extraction and removal of vanadium by adsorption with resin 201* 7 from vanadium waste liquid. Environmental research, 180, 108865.
 Makhotkina, E. S., & Shubina, M. V. (2017). Industrial, Ecological and Resource-Efficient Aspects of Vanadium Production and Use of Technogenic Vanadium Sources. In Solid State Phenomena (Vol. 265, pp. 994-998). Trans Tech Publications Ltd.
 Tsai, S. L., & Tsai, M. S. (1998). A study of the extraction of vanadium and nickel in oil-fired fly ash. Resources, conservation and recycling, 22(3-4), 163-176.
 Abdel-latif, M. A. (2002). Recovery of vanadium and nickel from petroleum flyash. Minerals Engineering, 15(11), 953-961.
 Muthukumar, K., Patel, K. M., Mohapatra, D., Padh, B., & Reddy, B. R. (2020). Selective recovery of vanadium as AMV from calcium vanadate sludge by direct AS leaching process: An industrial approach. Waste Management, 102, 815-822.
 Nazari, E., Rashchi, F., Saba, M., & Mirazimi, S. M. J. (2014). Simultaneous recovery of vanadium and nickel from power plant fly-ash: Optimization of parameters using response surface methodology. Waste management, 34(12), 2687-2696.
 Mohanty, J., Rath, P. C., Bhattacharya, I. N., & Paramguru, R. K. (2011). The recovery of vanadium from spent catalyst: a case study. Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, 120(1), 56-60.
 Pradhan, D., Sukla, L. B., Pattanaik, A., Samal, D. K., Biswal, T., & Jena, S. K. B. (2021). Improvement in metal dissolution from spent catalyst by adapted Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Biointerface Res. Appl. Chem, 11, 7794-7803.
 Mikoda, B., Potysz, A., Gruszecka-Kosowska, A., Kmiecik, E., & Tomczyk, A. (2020). Spent sulfuric acid plant catalyst: valuable resource of vanadium or risky residue? Process comparison for environmental implications. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 1-10.
 Dong, Y., Lin, H., Liu, Y., & Zhao, Y. (2020). Blank roasting and bioleaching of stone coal for vanadium recycling. Journal of Cleaner Production, 243, 118625.
 Li, J., Zhang, B., Yang, M., & Lin, H. (2021). Bioleaching of vanadium by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans from vanadium-bearing resources: Performance and mechanisms. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 416, 125843.
 Gomes, H. I., Funari, V., Mayes, W. M., Rogerson, M., & Prior, T. J. (2018). Recovery of Al, Cr and V from steel slag by bioleaching: batch and column experiments. Journal of environmental management, 222, 30-36.
 Qu, Y., Li, H., Wang, X., Tian, W., Shi, B., Yao, M., ... & Yue, L. (2019). Selective parameters and bioleaching kinetics for leaching vanadium from red mud using Aspergillus niger and Penicillium tricolor. Minerals, 9(11), 697.
 Zeng, L., & Cheng, C. Y. (2009). A literature review of the recovery of molybdenum and vanadium from spent hydrodesulphurisation catalysts: Part I: Metallurgical processes. Hydrometallurgy, 98(1-2), 1-9.
 Rojas-Rodríguez, A. D., Flores-Fajardo, O., González, F. S. A., Castillo, N. N. L., & Gómez, M. J. C. (2012). Chemical treatment to recover molybdenum and vanadium from spent heavy gasoil hydrodesulfurization catalyst.
 Chen, Y., Feng, Q., Shao, Y., Zhang, G., Ou, L., & Lu, Y. (2006). Investigations on the extraction of molybdenum and vanadium from ammonia leaching residue of spent catalyst. International Journal of Mineral Processing, 79(1), 42-48.
 Ognyanova, A., Ozturk, A. T., De Michelis, I., Ferella, F., Taglieri, G., Akcil, A., & Vegliò, F. (2009). Metal extraction from spent sulfuric acid catalyst through alkaline and acidic leaching. Hydrometallurgy, 100(1-2), 20-28.
 Huo, Y., Chang, Z., Li, W., Liu, S., & Dong, B. (2015). Reuse and valorization of vanadium and tungsten from waste V 2 O 5–WO 3/TiO 2 SCR catalyst. Waste and Biomass Valorization, 6(2), 159-165.
 Mazurek, K. (2013). Recovery of vanadium, potassium and iron from a spent vanadium catalyst by oxalic acid solution leaching, precipitation and ion exchange processes. Hydrometallurgy, 134, 26-31.