A review on the extraction of vanadium pentoxide from primary, secondary, and co-product sources

Document Type : Review Paper


Department of Mineral Processing, Faculty of Mining Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Sahand New Town, Tabriz, Iran


Vanadium is a strategic metal and its compounds are widely used in industry. Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) is one of the important compounds of vanadium, which is mainly extracted from titanomagnetite, phosphate rocks, uranium-vanadium deposits, oil residues, and spent catalysts. The main steps of vanadium extraction from its sources include salt roasting, leaching, purification, and precipitation of vanadium compounds. In the hydrometallurgical method, first, the vanadium is converted to a water-soluble salt by roasting, and then the hot water is used to leach out the salt-roasted product and the leach liquor is purified by chemical precipitation, solvent extraction, or ion exchange processes to remove impurities. Then, a red cake precipitates from an aqueous solution by adjusting the conditions. To provide high pure vanadium pentoxide, it is necessary to treat the filtered red cake in ammonia solution. So, ammonium metavanadate (AMV) is precipitated, calcined, and flaked to vanadium pentoxide. In the pyrometallurgical method, vanadium-containing concentrate is smelted, and by forming titanium-containing slag and molten pig iron, oxygen is blown into pig iron in a converter or shaking ladles, and vanadium is oxidized to produce vanadium-rich slag. In the next step, the slag is roasted and treated by the hydrometallurgical process. In this paper, the industrial processes and novel developed methods are reviewed for the extraction of vanadium pentoxide.


Main Subjects

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