The role of Mineral Salts Company in pollution of Mighan playa sediments with heavy metals by contamination indices and multivariate analysis methods, Arak, Iran

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Mining Engineering, Arak University of Technology, Arak, Iran

2 Incubator of earth researchers .Arak University of Technology


Heavy metal concentrations were investigated for 30 sediments collected from different regions of Mighan playa/lake. The means of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Cd in sediments of playa/lake were much lower than the soil guideline values of Iran and background values of region (BVR). However, the maximum concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Cd were higher than BVR. Only 7% of Cr, Cu, Zn, 27% of Ni, 14% of Pb and 38% of Cd concentration exceeded the BVR. The heavy metal Cr, Zn, Ni and Cd are the most important metals in different land use. About 11% of the samples in the lake land use contain Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn has concentration higher than BVR. The concentration of Cu and Pb in 33% and 67% samples is exceeded the BVR in Tail of Mineral Salts Company. The spatial distribution patterns of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Cd were generally similar and increase from Mighan playa/lake to the Arak city and mainly affected by anthropogenic sources. Among the six types of land use, the concentrations of Cr, Ni, Zn and Cd in the range land and wastewater sludge were significantly higher than those in the other land use (p <0.05). In factor analysis, Cr, Ni, Zn in factor1, Cd in factor2, Pb, Zn in factor3 were originated from the municipal sewage, industrial plants activities and Arak urban traffic.


[1] Singare, P.U., Bhanage, S.V & Lokhande, R.S.(2011).Study on water pollution along the Kukshet Lakes of Nerul, Navi Mumbai, India with special reference to pollution due to heavy metals. International Journal of Global Environmental,11 (1),79–90.
[2] Zhang, H., Jiang, Y., Ding, M & Xie, Z.(2017).Level, source identification, and risk analysis of heavy metal in surface sediments from river-lake ecosystems in Poyang Lake, China. Environmental Science Pollution Research,24(27),21902–21916.
[3] Zhengwu, C., Yang, W., Na,Z., Rui,Y., Guanghui,X & Yong, Y. (2018).Spatial distribution and risk assessment of heavy metals in Paddy soils of Yongshuyu irrigation area from Songhua River Basin, Northeast China. Chines Geographical Science,28 (5),797– 809.
[4] Ghadimi, F. (2020). Assessing the heavy metal contamination in sediments of Mighan playa using pollution indices. Journal of Stratigraphy and Sedimentology Researches University of Isfahan, 36(78), 21-38(in Persian).
[5] Saberinasab, F., & Mortazavi, S. (2018). Evaluation of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni concentration in Arak Mighan wetland based on sediment pollution indices. Journal of Water and Soil Science, 22(1), 15-27.
[6] Safari Sinegani,A.A., Safari Sinegani,M. (2018). Chemical fractionation and bioavailability of Fe, Mn, Pb, and Cd in soils around Meyghan Lake, Arak, Iran. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology,16,3297-3308.
[7] Sheikh Fakhradins, A., & Abbasnejad, A.(2015). The influence of weathering on hydrochemistry of streams drainage volcanic rocks: Bidkhan stream, southeast of Bardsir in Kerman. Journal of Geography and Planning, 19(53),203-226.
[8] Thiombane,M., Lima,A., Albanese,S., Buscher,J.T., & DeVivo, B.(2018). Soil contamination compositional index: A new approach to quantify contamination demonstrated by assessing compositional source patterns of potentially toxic elements in the Campania Region (Italy). Applied Geochemistry, 96, 264-276.
[9] Li,F., Huang, J., Zeng, G., Yuan, X., Li, X., Liang, J., Wang, X., Tang, X & Bai, B.(2013).Spatial risk assessment and sources identification  of heavy metals in surface sediments from theDongting Lake, Middle China. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 132,75–83.
[10] Shi, X., Chen, L & Wang, J.(2013). Multivariate analysis of heavy metal pollution in street dust of Xianyang city, NW China. Environmental Earth Science,69 (6),1973-1979.
[11] Cheng, H., Li,M., Zhao, C., Yang, K., Li, K., Peng,M., Yang, Z., Liu, F., Liu, Y & Bai, R.( 2015).Concentrations of toxic metals and ecological risk assessment for sediments of major freshwater lakes in China. Journal Geochemical Exploration,157, 15–26.
[12] Ahmadi Doabi, Sh., Karami, M & Afyuni, M.(2019).Heavy metal pollution assessment in agricultural soils of Kermanshah province, Iran. Environmental Earth Sciences,
[13] Imam, N., El-Sayed, M.S & El-Sherif Goher, M.(2020). Risk assessments and spatial distributions of natural radioactivity and heavy metals in Nasser Lake, Egypt. Environmental Science and Pollution Research,
[14] Beutel, M.W., Leonard, T.M., Dent, S.R & Moor, B.C.(2008). Effects of aerobic and anaerobic conditions on P, N, Fe, Mn, and Hg accumulation in waters overlaying profundal sediments of an Oligo-mesotrophic lake. Water Research, 42,1953-1962.
[15] Amor,R.B., Yahyaoui,A., Abidi, M., Chouba,L& Gueddari, M.(2019). Bioavailability and assessment of metal contamination in surface sediments of Rades-Hamam Lif coast, around Meliane river,(Gulf of Tunis, Tunisia, Mediterranean Sea). Journal of Chemistry, Article ID 4284987,11 pages
[16] Violintzis, C., Arditsoglou, A & Voutsa, D.(2009). Elemental composition of suspended particulate matter and sediments in the coastal environment of Thermaikos Bay, Greece: delineating the impact of inland waters and wastewaters. Journal of Hazard Mater, 166,1250 -1260.
[17] Malsiu,M., Shehu,I., Stafilov,T & Faiku, F.(2020). Assessment of heavy metal concentrations with fractionation method in sediments and waters of the Badovci lake (Kosovo). Journal of Environmental and Public Health, Article ID 3098594,14 pages
[18] Wang, H.D., Fang, F.M & Xie, H.F.(2010). Research situation and outlook on heavy metal pollution in the water environment of China. Guangdong Trace Element Science, 17,14-18.
[19] Govil, P.K., Sorlie, J.E., Sujatha, D & Krishna, A.K.(2012). Assessment of heavy metal pollution in lake sediments of Katedan industrial development area, Hyderabad, India. Environmental Earth Science,66(1),121-128.
[20] Ghadimi, F & Ghomi, M. (2013). Assessment of the effects of municipal wastewater on the heavy metal pollution of water and sediment in Arak Mighan Lake, Iran. Journal of Tethys, 1(3),205- 214.
[21] Ghadimi, F. (2014). Assessment of heavy metals contamination in urban topsoil from Arak industrial city, Iran. Journal of Tethys, 2(3),196–209.
[22] Rahimpour-Bonab,H &Abdi,L.(2012). Sedimentology and origin of Meyghan lake/playa deposits in Sanandaj–Sirjan zone, Iran. Carbonates and Evaporites, 27(3-4),375-393.
[23] Ghadimi, F.(2014). Assessment of the sources of chemical elements in sediment from Arak Mighan Lake. International Journal Sediment Research, 29,159-170.
[24] Ardakani, S., & Jamshidi, K. (2015). Assessment of metals (Co, Ni, and Zn) content in the sediments of Mighan wetland using a geoaccumulation index. Iran of Journal Toxicology, 9 (30), 1386-1390.
[25] Safari Sinegani,M, Safari Sinegani,A.A & Hadipour, M. (2018). Sources and spatial distribution of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in saline soils and sediments of Mighan Playa (Iran). Lake and Reservoir,
[26] The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). (1996). Method 3050B: Acid digestion of sediments, sludges, and soils; Revision 2; USEPA: Washington, DC, USA.
[27] Gaudino, S., Galas,Ch.,Belli,M., Barbizzi,S., Zorzi,P ., Jaćimović, R., Jeran,Z., Pati,A & Sansone,U.(2007). The role of different soil sample digestion methods on trace elements analysis: a comparison of ICP-MS and INAA measurement results. Mathematical and Computational Chemistry,12,84-93.
[28] Ghadimi F & Ghomi M.(2016). Statistical analysis of exploration geochemical data using a function in Statistica environment, Print: Arak University of Technology Publications, 288 pages (in Persian).
[29] Kwon, Y.T &Lee, C.W.(1998). Application of multiple ecological risk indices for the evaluation of heavy metal contamination in a coastal Dredging area. The Science Total Environment, 214,203–210.
[30] Håkanson L.(1980). An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control: A sedimentological approach. Water Research, 14,975– 1001.
[31] Caeiro, S., Costa, M.H & Ramos, T.B.(2005). Assessing heavy metal contamination in Sado estuary sediment: An Index Analysis Approach. Ecology Indicative, 5,151–169.
[32] Cheng, J.L., Shi, Z& Zhu, Y.W.(2007). Assessment and mapping of environmental quality in agricultural soils of Zhejiang Province, China. Journal Environmental Science, 19, 50–54.
[33] Kaiser, H.F.(1960). The application of electronic computers to factor analysis. Education Psychology. Measures, 20,141–151.
[34] Loska, K& Wiechuła, D.(2003). Application of principal component analysis for the estimation of the source of heavy metal contamination in surface sediments from the Rybnik reservoir. Chemosphere, 51,723–733.
[35] Manly Bryan, F.J.(1994). Multivariate statistical methods: A Primer. 2nd Ed. Chapman and Hall; London, England. 215 p.
[36] Lombardo, R & Meulman, J.(2010). Multiple correspondence analysis via polynomial transformations of ordered categorical variables. Journal of Classification, 27(2),191–210.
[37] IEO (Iranian Environment Organization). (2018). Iran Quality Resource Quality Standards.
[38] CCME (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment). (2007). Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Environmental and Human Health, Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, Winnipeg.
[39] Taylor,S.R & McLennan,S.M.(1995).The geochemical evolution of the continental crust. Review Geophysics, 33,241–265.
[40] GB15618.(1995). Soil Environmental Quality Standards in China, Ministry of Environmental Protection of China, Beijing.
[41] Wilcke,W., Muller,S., Kanchanakool, N& Zech,W.(1998). Urban soil contamination in Bangkok: heavy metal and aluminum partitioning in topsoils. Geoderma, 86,211–228.
[42] Salonen, V& Korkka-Niemi,K.(2007). Influence of parent sediments on the concentration of heavy metals in urban and suburban soils in Turku, Finland. Applied Geochemistry, 22, 906–918.
[43] Gu, Y.G.& Lin, Q.(2016). Trace metals in a sediment core from the largest mariculture base of the eastern Guangdong coast, South China: vertical distribution, speciation, and biological risk. Mars Pollution Bulletin,113,520–525.
[43] Wang, Z.Y.(2013). Factor analysis of heavy metals in the sediment in Changping section of the Wenyu river and their pollution assessment. Research of Environmental Sciences, 26(8),838-843.
[44] Sheela, A.M., Letha, J., Joseph, S., Joeseph, J & Thomas, J.(2014).Multivariate analysis of the sediment quality of a tropical coastal lake system. Lakes and Reservoirs, 19(4), 306-317.
[45] Mortazavi, S & Saberi –Nasab, F.(2016). Survey of Cu and Ni heavy metals pollution in surface sediments of Mighan Arak wetland using pollution and sediment quality indices. International Conference on Civil, Architecture, Urban Management and Environment in the Third Millennium, Rasht (in Persian).
[46] Ansarian, F.(2015). Measurement of heavy metal surface sediments in Mighan playa to investigate the effects of Arak wastewater treatment plant. Second Conference on New Findings in the Environment and Agricultural Ecosystems, Tehran University (in Persian).
[47] Fazeli, M.Sh & Malaki, Alagh, M.(2000). Investigation of some heavy metals in sediments of Gomishan wetland. Third National Conference on Environmental Health, the Islamic Azad University of Shiraz Branch (in Persian).
[48] Babaee, H., Khadaprast, SH &Shavandasht, J.(2013).The impact of industrial, agricultural, and urban wastewater on mineral pollutants in Anzali international wetland. First National Iranian Wetlands Conference, Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz, Iran (in Persian).
[49] Pyri, H.(2010). Evaluation of heavy metal concentrations of Ni, Cu, Cd, Hg, and Pb in Hamoon wetland, Second National Wetlands Conference of Iran. Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz Branch, Iran (in Persian).
[50] Aghasi, B., Jalalian, A& Khadami, H.(2015). Evaluation of heavy metal contamination in sediments of international Gvkhuni wetland. Second Conference on New Findings in the Environment and Agricultural Ecosystems, the University of Tehran (in Persian).