The reclamation of mica flakes from tailing disposal using gravity separators and flotation

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Department of Mining Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran

2 Department of Mining Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

3 3.Department of Mining Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran;Materials and Energy Research Center (MERC), Karaj, Iran

Abstract

A sample from the small-sized tailing pile of an Iranian mica processing plant was subjected to a series of mica recovery experiments. Mineralogical and microscopic investigations indicated that the dominant mica mineral was phlogopite which was accompanied by plagioclase feldspars. Before beneficiation studies, the particle size distribution of the representative sample was obtained, and the specifications of each size fraction were investigated in detail. It was observed that the largest portion of mica (31%) is accumulated in the size range of 0.3 to 2.0 mm. Afterward, gravity concentration and flotation experiments were carried out. Results proved that shaking table could produce a mica concentrate with grade of 74%. Also, according to the flotation tests, it seemed the best size fraction was -150+75, and after that, -100+150. Flotation in combination with attrition scrubbing produced a concentrate with 92% mica content and 70% recovery. Finally, with respect to the results of all implemented experiments, a processing flow sheet was proposed for mica reclamation from the mentioned waste disposal.

Keywords


[1]. Kogel, J.E., Trivedi, N.C., Barker, J.M. & Krukowski, S.T. (2006). Industrial minerals & rocks: commodities, markets, and uses. SME, Colorado, USA, 637-652.
[2]. Browning, J.S. & Adair, R.B. (1966). Selective flotation of mica from Georgia pegmatites. US Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, 6830.
[3]. Norman, J.E. & O'meara, R. (1941). Froth flotation and agglomerate tabling of micas. US Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Mines. 3558.
[4]. Arocena, J. & Velde, B. (2009). Transformation of chlorites by primary biological agents-a synthesis of X-ray diffraction studies. Geomicrobiology Journal, 26(6), 382-388.
[5]. Kalinowski, B.E. & Schweda, P. (1996). Kinetics of muscovite, phlogopite, and biotite dissolution and alteration at pH 1-4, room temperature. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 60(3), 367-385.
[6]. Taylor, A.S., Blum, J.D., Lasaga, A.C. & MacInnis, I.N. (2000). Kinetics of dissolution and Sr release during biotite and phlogopite weathering. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 64(7), 1191-1208.
[7]. Nagy, K. (1995). Dissolution and precipitation kinetics of sheet silicates. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 31(1), 173-233.
[8]. Bulatovic, S.M. (2007). Handbook of flotation reagents: chemistry, theory and practice, 3, Elsevier.
[9]. Kuzvart, M. (2013). Industrial minerals and rocks. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Holand, 222-228.
[10]. Santos, S.F., França, S.C.A. & Ogasawara, T. (2011). Method for grinding and delaminating muscovite. Mining Science and Technology, 21(1), 7-10.
[11]. Gulsoy, O. & Kademli, M. (2006). Effects of operational parameters of spiral concentrator on mica-feldspar separation. Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, 115(2), 80-84.
[12]. Kademli, M. & Gulsoy, O.Y. (2012). The role of particle size and solid contents of feed on mica-feldspar separation in gravity concentration. Physicochemical Problems of Mineral Processing, 48(2), 645-654.
[13]. França, S.C.A., Santos, S.F. & Ogasawara, T. (2008). Alternative route to muscovite mica dressing, in IX Argentine Conference on Mineral Processing. San Juan, Argentina.
[14]. Gershenkop, A.S. & Khokhulya, M. (2004). Physical separation (gravity and shape) of small-sized mica ore. European Journal of Mineral Processing & Environmental Protection, 4(3), 253-259.
[15]. Burt, R. (2013). A review of gravity concentration techniques for processing fines. in Production and Processing of Fine Particles: Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Production and Processing of Fine Particles, Montreal, Canada, 375-386.
[16]. Mular, A.L., Halbe, D.N. & Barratt, D.J. (2002). Mineral processing plant design, practice, and control. SME, Colorado USA, 1162-1164.
[17]. Zhongyin, S.L.L. (2008). Discussion on Present Studying Situation and Developing Trend of Gravity Concentration Equipment. Express Information of Mining Industry, 6, 001. 

[18]. Kelina, I.M., Tsypin, Y.F. & Aleksandrova, Y.P. (1983). About factor of friction of mineral benefication of mica slates on the shelved separator. Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii, 4, 126-129.
[19]. Lee, P.K., Touray, J.C., Baillif, P., Ildefonse, J.P. (1997). Heavy metal contamination of settling particles in a retention pond along the A-71 motorway in Sologne, France. Science of the Total Environment, 201(1), 1-15.
[20]. Legret, M. & Colandini, V. (1999). Effects of a porous pavement with reservoir structure on runoff water: water quality and fate of heavy metals. Water Science and Technology, 39(2), 111-117.
[21]. Zanders, J. (2005). Road sediment: characterization and implications for the performance of vegetated strips for treating road run-off. Science of the Total Environment, 339(1), 41-47.
[22]. Durand, C. (2003). Physico‐chemical characterisation of stormwater sediments: Origin and fate of trace metals and organic pollutants. PhD thesis, University of Poitiers (in French).
[23]. Clozel, B., Ruban, V., Durand, C., Conil, P. (2006). Chemical and mineralogical assessment of the origin and mobility of heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr) in contaminated sediments from retention and infiltration ponds. Appl. Geochem, 21, 1781-1798.
[24]. Sharp, K. (1993). Selective soft self attrition gold dissolution. Provisional Patent Application NR: 93/9645, 34.
[25]. Bayley, R. & Biggs C. (2005). Characterisation of an attrition scrubber for the removal of high molecular weight contaminants in sand. Chemical Engineering Journal, 111(1), 71-79.
[26]. Pryor, M. (2012). Mineral processing. Springer Science & Business Media, Netherland.
[27]. Parekh, B. & Miller, J. (1999). Advances in flotation technology. SME, Colorado USA, 245-256.
[28]. Sekulić, Ž., Canić, N., Bartulović, Z. & Daković, A. (2004). Application of different collectors in the flotation concentration of feldspar, mica and quartz sand. Minerals Engineering, 17(1), 77-80.
[29]. Mackintosh, E. & Lewis, D. (1968). Displacement of potassium from micas by dodecylammonium chloride. Int Soc Soil Sci Trans, 2, 695-703.
[30]. Bhappu, B. (1964). Recovery of Valuable Minerals f rom Pegmatite Ores. New Mex. Bureau of Mines, Min. Resources. Circ., 70, 1-29.
[31]. Jinni, H.G.F. & Yipeng, M.M.W. (2013). Application of Combined Collectors in Flotation of Lepidolite. Non-Metallic Mines, 4, 009.
[32]. Beausoleil, N., Lavallée, P., Yelon, A., Ballet, O., Coey, J.M.D. (1983). Magnetic properties of biotite micas. Journal of Applied Physics, 54(2), 906-915.
[33]. Parkhomenko, E.I. (2012). Electrical Properties of Rocks. Springer US.
[34]. Mehdilo, A., Irannajad, M., Zarei, H. (2014). Smithsonite Flotation from Zinc Oxide Ore using Alkyl Amine Acetate Collectors. Separation Science and Technology, 49(3), 445-457.
[35]. Raesisi, A. & Amini, A. (1990). Mica Enrichment of Gharabagh Deposite. Geological Survey of Iran.
[36]. Ipekoglu, B. & Asmatulu, R. (1996). The recovery studies of pure mica for paint industry. in 6th international symposium of Mineral Processing. Kusadasi, Turkey: CRC Press.
[37]. Schoeman, J. (1989). Mica and vermiculite in South Africa. Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 1-12.
[38]. Iverson, H. (1932). Separation of feldspar from quartz. Engineering and Mining Journal, 133, 227-229.
[39]. Adair, R., McDaniel, W., Hudspeth, W. (1951). New method for recovery of flake mica. Mining Engineering, 3, 252-254.
[40]. Wills, B.A. (2011). Wills' Mineral Processing Technology: An Introduction to the Practical Aspects of Ore Treatment and Mineral Recovery. Elsevier Science.
[41]. Kelly, E.G. & Spottiswood, D.J. (1982). Introduction to mineral processing. Wiley.
[42]. Wang, L., Sun, W., Liu, R. (2014). Mechanism of separating muscovite and quartz by flotation. Journal of Central South University, 21, 3596-3602.
[43]. Xu, L., Wu, H., Dong, F., Wang, L., Wang, Z., Xiao, J. (2013). Flotation and adsorption of mixed cationic/anionic collectors on muscovite mica. Minerals Engineering, 41, 41-45.
[44]. Marion, C., Jordens, A., McCarthy, S., Grammatikopoulos, T., Waters, K.E. (2015). An investigation into the flotation of muscovite with an amine collector and calcium lignin sulfonate depressant. Separation and Purification Technology.

[45]. Stražišar, J. & Sešelj, A. (1999). Attrition as a process of comminution and separation. Powder Technology, 105(1), 205-209.
[46]. Feng, D., Lorenzen, L., Aldrich, C. & Mare, P.W. (2001). Ex situ diesel contaminated soil washing with mechanical methods. Minerals Engineering, 14(9), 1093-1100.
[47]. Stegmann, R., Brunner, G., Calmano, W. & Matz, G. (2013). Treatment of contaminated soil: fundamentals, analysis, applications. Springer Science & Business Media.