Application of gravity separators for enrichment of South Chah-Palang tungsten ore

Document Type : Research Paper


1 M.Sc., Mineral Processing, School of Mining Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Professor, Mineral Processing, School of Mining Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 M.Sc., Mineral Processing, Mining & Metallurgical Engineering, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran


In the present study, the possibility of concentrating tungsten-copper vein ore in South Chah-Palang was examined using gravity separators including Jig Machine (-2360+600 μm), shaking table (-600+120 μm), and multi-gravity separator (MGS) (-120 μm). The representative sample contains 1.5% WO3 and 5.95% CuO. The main tungsten minerals were ferberite and wolframite and their appropriate liberation degree was approximately in the range of 250 μm. Box-Behenken and CCD response surface methods were applied to model and optimize jig machine and MGS results, respectively. Shaking table performance was modeled by full factorial design method. In Jig machine tests, the effects of water flow rate, frequency and feed particle size were investigated. Deck inclination, wash water, and feed water flow rate were operational parameters in shaking table. In the MGS testes, the effects of two parameters of tilt angle and wash water flow rate were inspected. In this set of experiments, WO3 recovery and grade were considered as responses of each model. The maximum recovery of WO3 in jig machine was obtained in water flow rate of 3.71 lit/min, frequency of 153rpm, and the particle size range of -2360+1700 μm. In this case, the grade and recovery of WO3 were 2.85% and 94.33%, respectively. The maximum WO3 recovery was 93.9% with grade of 8.20 % using shaking table in the deck inclination of 11 degree, feed water flow rate of 7 lit/min, and wash water flow rate of 8 lit/min. The maximum WO3 recovery in MGS attained with 3.45 degrees tilt angle and wash water rate of 3.16 lit/min. The grade and recovery of WO3 in the MGS method were 4.2% and 90.61%, respectively.


[1]. Lassner, E., Schubert, W.D. (1998). Tungsten: properties, chemistry, technology of the element,
alloys, and chemical compounds. Chapter 5, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Pub. Co., New York.
[2]. Srinivas, K., Sreenivas, T., Natarajan, R., Padamanabhan, N.P.H. (2000). Studies on the recovery of tungsten from a composite wolframite– scheelite concentrate. Hydrometallurgy., No. 58, PP. 43-50.
[3]. Zhao, Z., Li, J., Wang, S., Li, H., Liu, M., Sun, P., Li, Y. (2011). Extracting tungsten from scheelite concentrate with caustic soda by autoclaving process. Hydrometallurgy., No. 108, PP. 152-162.
[4]. Ghosh, C., Pai, D.R., Narasimham, J.B., Majumdar, K.K. Beneficiation of low grade wolframite ore from Degana, Rajasthan.
[5]. Davies, P.O.J., Goodman, R.H., Deschamps, J.A. (1991). Recent developments in spiral design, construction and application. Minerals Engineering., Vol. 4, No. 3/4, PP. 437-456.
[6]. Sutaone, A.T., Raju, k.s. (2000). Physical Separation Processing of Bulk Tin-Tungsten Pre-concentration into Individual Constituents for Commercial Applications. International mineral processing congress, C9.7-12.
[7]. Clemente, D., Newling, p., Botelho de Sousa, A., Lejeune, G., Barber, S.P., and Tucker, P. (1993). Reprocessing Slime Tailing from a Tungsten mine. Minerals Engineering., VoL. 6, Issues 8–10, PP. 831-839.
[8]. Greaves, J.n. (1989). Tungsten and Gold Recovery from Alaskan Scheelite-Bearing Ores. Report of Investigations 9251, Bureau of Mines and United States Department of the Interior.
[9]. Will Mitchell, Jr., Sollenberger, C.L., Kirkland, T.G. (1952). Flotation Test on Korean Scheelite Ore. J. of Mining Eng., Vol. 190, PP. 60-64.
[10]. Rao, G.M., Subrahmanyan, N.N. (1936). Beneficiation of Tungsten ores in India- problems, processes, applications, and demands in general on a global scene. Fizykochemiczne Problemy Mineralurgii., No 18, PP. 23-37.
[11]. Srivastava, J.P., Pathak, P.N. (2000). Pre-concentration: a necessary step for upgrading tungsten ore. Int. J. Miner. Process., No 60, PP. 1–8.
[12]. Mohammadnejad, S., Noaparast, M., Shafaei Tonkaboni, S.Z., Olyaei, Y., Haghi, H., Hosseini, S.M. (2015). Application of Shaking Table in Scheelite Enrichment from Nezam Abad Mine Using Box-Behenken Design. XVI Balkan Mineral Processing Congress (BMPC2015), Vol. 1, Section 4. PP. 299-303.
[13]. Aslan, N. (2007). Modeling and optimization of Multi-Gravity Separator to produce celestite concentrate. Powder Technology., No 174, PP. 127–133.
[14]. Aslan, N. (2008). Multi-objective optimization of some process parameters of a multi-gravity separator for chromite concentration. Separation and Purification Technology., No 64, PP. 237–241.
[15]. Aslan, N. (2007). Application of response surface methodology and central composite rotatable design for modeling the influence of some operating variables of a Multi-Gravity Separator for coal cleaning. Fuel., No 86, PP. 769–776.
[16]. Selim, A.Q., El-Midany, A.A., Abdel-Fattah, A.S., Ibrahim, S.S. (2010). Rationalization of the up-grading circuit of celestite for advanced applications. Powder Technology., No 198, PP. 233–239.
[17]. Aslan, N., Cifci, F., Yanb, A.D. (2008). Optimization of process parameters for producing graphite concentrate using response surface methodology. Separ. Purif .Technol., No 59, PP. 9–16.
[18]. Mehrabania, J.V., Noaparasta, M., Mousavi, S.M., Dehghand, R., Ghorbani, A. (2010). Process optimization and modelling of sphalerite flotation from a low-grade Zn-Pb ore using response surface methodology. Separation and Purification Technology., No 72, PP. 242–249.
[19]. Aslan, N. (2008). Application of response surface methodology and central composite rotatable design for modeling and optimization of a multi-gravity separator for chromite concentration. Powder Technology., No 185, PP. 80–86.
[20]. Frank, F.A. (2003). Gravity separation in. SME principles of mineral processing. 2nd. Ed. Chapter 2, New York.
[21]. Montgomery, D.C. (2001). Design and Analysis of Experiments. New York: John Wiley & Sons.