Numerical simulation of liquefaction susceptibility of soil interacting by single pile

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.

Abstract

Previous case histories have shown that soil liquefaction severely damaged many structures supported on pile foundations during earthquakes. As a result, evaluating the potential for instability is an important consideration for the safe and resistant design of deep foundation against earthquakes. In this study, the liquefaction susceptibility of saturated sand interacting by single concrete pile was simulated by means of finite difference method. A nonlinear effective stress analysis was used to evaluate soil liquefaction, and the soil-pile interaction was considered using interface elements. The parameter Ru was defined as the pore water pressure ratio to investigate liquefaction in the soil mass during time. A set of numerical models were carried out by three types of soil mass with various condensation (loose, semi-dense and dense) under three ground motion with different predominant frequencies and peak accelerations. The effect of these parameters was studied using excess pore pressure, lateral movement and settlement time histories. It was found that the pile can affect the liquefaction susceptibility of soil by comparing the near pile and free field responses. However, for various soil and earthquake characteristics, it was found that the depth of soil liquefaction and triggering, varies.

Keywords


1] Byrne, P. M., Park, S.-S., Beaty, M., Sharp, M., Gonzalez, L.,& Abdoun, T. (2004). Numericalmodeling of liquefaction and comparison with centrifuge tests. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 41(2), 193-211. doi: 10.1139/t03-088
[2] Kramer, S. (1996). Geotechnical earthquake engineering. in prentice–Hall internationalseries in civil engineering and engineering mechanics: Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.
[3] Finn, W., & Fujita, N. (2002). Piles in liquefiable soils: seismic analysis and design issues. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 22(9), 731-742.
[4] Bhattacharya, S., Sarkar, R., & Huang, Y. (2013). Seismic Design of Piles in Liquefiable Soils New Frontiers in Engineering Geology and the Environment (pp. 31-44): Springer.
[5] Youd, T., Idriss, I., Andrus, R. D., Arango, I., Castro, G., Christian, J. T., . . . Hynes, M. E. (2001). Liquefaction resistance of soils: summary report from the 1996 NCEER and 1998 NCEER/NSF workshops on evaluation of liquefaction resistance of soils. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 127(10), 817-833.
[6] Steedman, R. S., Ledbetter, R. H., & Hynes, M. E. (2000). The influence of high confining stress on the cyclic behavior of saturated sand. Geotechnical Special Publication, 35-57.
[7] Rahmani, A., & Pak, A. (2012). Dynamic behavior of pile foundations under cyclic loading in liquefiable soils. Computers and Geotechnics, 40(0), 114-126. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2011.09.002.
[8] Yao, S., Kobayashi, K., Yoshida, N., & Matsuo, H. (2004). Interactive behavior of soil–pile-superstructure system in transient state to liquefaction by means of large shake table tests. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 24(5), 397-409.
[9] Tokimatsu, K., Suzuki, H., & Sato, M. (2005). Effects of inertial and kinematic interaction on seismic behavior of pile with embedded foundation. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 25(7), 753-762.
[10] Wilson, D. W. (1998). Soil-pile-superstructure interaction in liquefying sand and soft clay. University of California, Davis.
[11] Haeri, S. M., Kavand, A., Rahmani, I., & Torabi, H. (2012). Response of a group of piles to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading by large scale shake table testing. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 38, 25-45.
[12] Choobbasti, A. J., Saadati, M., & Tavakoli, H. R. (2012). Seismic response of pile foundations in liquefiable soil: parametric study. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 5(6), 1307-1315.
[13] Phanikanth, V., Choudhury, D., & Reddy, G. (2012). Behavior of single pile in liquefied deposits during earthquakes. International Journal of Geomechanics, 13(4), 454-462.
[14] Cheng, Z., & Jeremić, B. (2009). Numerical modeling and simulation of pile in liquefiable soil. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 29(11), 1405-1416.
[15] Itasca Consulting Group, I. (2011). FLAC-fast Lagrangian analysis of continua. User’s manual, version 7.0, Minneapolis.
[16] Popescu, R., & Prevost, J. H. (1993). Centrifuge validation of a numerical model for dynamic soil liquefaction. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 12(2), 73-90.
[17] Asgari, A., Golshani, A., & Bagheri, M. (2014). Numerical evaluation of seismic response of shallow foundation on loose silt and silty sand. Journal of Earth System Science, 123(2), 365-379.
[18] Kuhlemeyer, R. L., & Lysmer, J. (1973). Finite element method accuracy for wave propagation problems. Journal of Soil Mechanics & Foundations Div, 99(Tech Rpt).
[19] Seismosoft. (2013). SeismoSignal v5.1 – A computer program for signal processing of
Asaadi and Sharifipour / Int. J. Min. & Geo-Eng., Vol.49, No.1, June 2015
56
strong-motion data (Version 5.1): available from http://www.seismosoft.com.
[20] Byrne, P. M. (1991). A cyclic shear-volume coupling and pore pressure model for sand. Paper presented at the Proc., 2nd International Conference on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics, St. Louis